The US has unveiled the Artemis Accords, a series of bilateral agreements meant to further the development of a lunar-mining industry.
How are these Accords being received by the rest of the world? What impact might they have on the existing space-governance framework? What could they mean for international law?
Daniel Porras is the Director of Strategic Partnerships and Communications at the Secure World Foundation. Previously, Mr. Porras was the Space Security Fellow at the UN Institute for Disarmament Research, where he focused on political and legal issues surrounding space security. His main focus has been on the progressive development of sustainable norms of behavior for space activities. Mr. Porras conducted research on the emergence of new technologies and approaches to strategic stability in outer space. He was the resident technical expert for multiple UN bodies working on space security issues, including the Group of Governmental Experts on the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space. Mr. Porras’ areas of expertise include international space law and policy, emerging technology threats, international law, and political science.
Mike Gold currently serves as the Acting Associate Administrator for NASA’s Office of International and Interagency Relations. He is also responsible for providing strategic direction to the Office of General Counsel and supporting NASA’s LEO Commercialization efforts. Prior to joining NASA, Mr. Gold was the Vice President of Civil Space at MAXAR Technologies, and was also General Counsel for the company’s Radiant Solutions Business Unit.
Oonagh Sands is a dually-qualified English and US-lawyer who serves as a Senior Associate at Fietta LLP. The Legal 500 has recognised Ms. Sands as a “Rising Star” in public international law. She has significant experience representing sovereign States and their State-owned entities, as well as individuals and private entities, before leading world dispute resolution fora. She has represented clients before the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, as well as investor-State arbitral tribunals constituted under ICSID, In May 2020, the American Society of International Law appointed Ms. Sands to serve on its Program Committee, alongside prominent US academics and international law practitioners.
Chris Johnson is the Space Law Advisor for the Secure World Foundation and has nine years of professional experience in international space law and policy. Mr. Johnson also serves as a Professor of Law (Adjunct) at the Georgetown University Law Center in Washington D.C., where he co-teaches the spring Space Law Seminar. He is also Adjunct Faculty at the International Space University (ISU) in Strasbourg, France, the Legal Advisor for the Moon Village Association (MVA); and a Core Expert and Rule Drafter in the Manual on International Law Applicable to Military Activities in Outer Space (MILAMOS) project.
Dr. Guoyu Wang has served as a Chinese delegate to United Nations Committee of Peaceful Use of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) since 2012, as well as assigned as a Chinese expert to the Long-term Sustainability for Outer Space Activities Working Group (LTSWG) of UNCOPUOS (2012-2018). Dr. Wang also plays an active role in international initiatives in space law beyond UN framework. He is an editorial member and expert of McGill Manual for the International Law Applicable for Military Use of Outer Space (MILAMOS) since 2018 and an expert of The Hague International Working Group on Space Resources Governance since 2015.
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