The Space Court Law Library

Space Law Research Guide

Detailed National Guides
Belgium 🇧🇪

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of Belgian Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

     National legislation search

Source of National Space Law

Official text of the Belgian Space Law currently in force:

BELSPO – Law of 17 September 2005 on the Activities of Launching, Flight Operation or Guidance of Space

International Agreements

Signatory to all five outer space treaties:

Outer Space Treaty 1967

Rescue Agreement 1968

Liability Convention 1973

Registration Convention 1976

Moon Agreement 1979

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention and Constitution (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA) 

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Regulation of Space Activities

Law on the Activities of Launching, Flight Operations or Guidance of Space Objects” of 17 September 2005 (Dutch and French versions) (English version

National Space Policy

Historical Documents

Overview of the history, administration, and legislative priorities of Belgian space law:

The Belgian Space Law 

Canada 🇨🇦

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of Canadian Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

Sources of National Space Law

Canadian Space Agency Act S.C. 1990, c 13. Last amended 2019-06-17

International Agreements

Ratified the Outer Space Treaty 1967

Ratified the Rescue Agreement 1968

Ratified the Liability Convention 1973

Ratified the Registration Convention 1976

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords 

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Signatory to the Civil International Space Station Agreement 

Signatory to the Civil Lunar Gateway Agreement

Signatory to the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters

Signatory to the International Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement

Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Space Agency 

Domestic Acts Implementing International Agreements

Civil International Space Station Agreement Implementation Act (S.C. 1999, c. 35) Assented to 1999-12-16. Last Amended 2003-07-02.

Civil Lunar Gateway Agreement Implementation Act (S.C. 2022, c. 10, s. 294) In force 2022-10-26. Last amended 2022-10-26.

Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Implementation Act (S.C. 1998, c. 32) Not entered into force. Last amended 2003-07-02.

Regulation of Space Activities

Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act (1985) created the regulatory Commission

Broadcasting Act (1991) gives authority to the Commission to regulate and supervise all aspects of the Canadian broadcasting system

Remote Sensing Space Systems Act (2005) covers licensing of satellite operations and is implemented by Global Affairs Canada.

Aeronautics Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-2) Assented to 1985. Last amended 2018-12-18. Enforced by Transport Canada.

Radiocommunication Act (1985) covers satellite spectrum licensing and the avoidance of harmful radio interference

Telecommunications Act (1993) enshrines policy objectives for the Canadian telecommunications industry, such as reliability, expanding and supporting the telecommunications industry through investment and  

Export and Import Permits Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. E-19). Last amended 2021-04-01.

Criminal Code of Canada (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46). Last amended 2023-05-27.

Space policy and the Remote Sensing Space Systems Act (RSSSA)

National Space Policy

Historical Documents

John Chapman, et al, Upper Atmosphere and Space Programs in Canada, Science Secretariat, Government of Canada, 1967 [Chapman Report]. Generally, the report made a case for the development of a Canadian space programme that concentrated on satellite communications, Canadian industrial development, cooperation with other countries, and recommended the establishment of a central coordinating and contracting agency for space research and development to oversee and manage the Canadian space effort.

The Telesat Canada Act (R.S.C. 1970., c. T-4). Assented to June 26th, 1969. Repealed upon the incorporation of Telesat under the Canada Business Corporations Act. 

Telesat Canada Reorganization and Divestiture Act (S.C. 1991, c. 52) Allowed for the privatization of the Telesat company under the Canada Business Corporations Act, which was sold to Bell Canada Enterprises and along with the Government of Canada’s shares. Telesat as a private company, is still involved in the Canadian telecommunications, radiocommunications, and broadcasting realm. 

Non Governmental Organizations

European Union and ESA 🇪🇺

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of European Union Space Law [SCF Members]

Primary Source of EU Law

Treaty on Functioning of European Union (TFEU)

Source of (supra)national Space Law

Regulation (EU) 2021/969 (The Space Regulation) 

International Agreements

Declaration of acceptance of rights and obligations of the outer space treaties:

ESA is signatory to the Civil International Space Station Agreement

ESA is signatory to the Civil Lunar Gateway Agreement

Convention for the establishment of a European Space Agency (ESA) Concluded at Paris on 30 May 1975

Framework Agreement between the European Community (predecessor of the EU) and European Space Agency (ESA)

Agreement between the French Government and the European Space Agency Concerning the Guiana Space Centre (1993) (selected provisions)

(Supra)national Space Policy and Regulation of Space Activities

General regulation / framework projects 

Regulation (EU) No 1285/2013 (11 December 2013) on the implementation and exploitation of the European satellite navigation systems 

Regulation (EU) No 377/2014 (3 April 2014) establishing the Copernicus Programme 

Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 (11 December 2013) establishing Horizon 2020 – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-2020) (Replaced)

Regulation (EU) 2021/695 (28 April 2021) Establishing Horizon Europe – The Framework Programme For Research And Innovation, Laying Down Its Rules For Participation And Dissemination, And Repealing Regulations (EU) No 1290/2013 And (EU) No 1291/2013

Telecommunications

Directive 97/13/EC  (1997) establishing a common framework for general authorization and individual licenses in the field of telecommunications services     

Regulation (EU) No 283/2014 (11 March 2014) on guidelines for trans-European networks in the area of telecommunications infrastructure

Export control

Employment, Health & Safety 

Directive 2013/59/Euratom – establishing protection against ionizing radiation

Directive 2013/35/EU – addressing electromagnetic fields

Directive 2003/10/EC – addressing noise

Directive 2002/44/EC – addressing vibration

     Environmental law

Regulation (EC) No 549/2004 (10 March 2004) creating the framework for the creation of the single European sky

Directive 2010/75/EU (24 November 2010) on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control)

Internal investment screening

Regulation (EU) 2019/452 (19 March 2019) establishing a framework for the screening of foreign direct investments into the Union

Historical Documents

Archives of the European Union – specifically regarding ESA

International Space Station Crew Code of Conduct

France 🇫🇷

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of French Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

Source of National Space Law

     National Space Law

Law creating the national space agency

LOI n° 2008-518 du 3 juin 2008 relative aux opérations spatiales (1) – Légifrance

Unofficial translation of French Space Operations Act

International Agreements

Signatory to all five outer space treaties:

Outer Space Treaty 1967 

Rescue and Return Agreement 1968

Liability Convention 1972

Registration Convention 1975

Moon Agreement 1979 (signed but not ratified)

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA) 

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Agreement between the French Government and the European Space Agency Concerning the Guiana Space Centre (1993) (selected provisions)

Regulation of Space Activities

National Space Policy

Historical Documents

France’s proposal for secure EU space communications and connectivity: 

Proposition de résolution en application de l’article 73 quinquies du Règlement, sur la proposition de règlement du Parlement européen et du Conseil établissant le programme de l’Union pour une connectivité sécurisée pour la période 2023-2027

India 🇮🇳

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of Indian Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

Source of National Space Law

Unofficial: Draft Space Activities Bill, 2017

International Agreements

Signatory to all five outer space treaties:

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Regulation of Space Activities

Space Licensing in India

India Space Research Organization (ISRO)

National Space Policy

Satellite Communication Policy

Remote Sensing Data Policy (RSDP)

New Space India Limited is owned by the government of India and is administered by the Department of Space for commercial space application

Historical Documents

Italy 🇮🇹

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of Italian Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Space Law

Documenti Legislativi e Norme Procedurali

Contains all legislative documents, procedural rules, and archival documents relating to the Italian space agency (ASI), including codes of conduct and related forms, internal documents and procedures governing administration, finance and accounting regulations, organization regulations, and staff regulations.

Source of National Space Law

Statute of the Italian Space Agency (2022)

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA) 

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

“Law for the implementation for the Convention on International Liability for damages caused by space objects”

Law n. 23 of 25 January 1983 (original version)

Law n. 23 of 25 January 1983 (unofficial translation)

Regulation of Space Activities

Decree Concerning the Reorganization of the Italian Space Agency (ASI)

Legislative Decree n. 128 of 4 June 2003

Law on Registration of space objects

Law n. 153 of 12 July 2005

The Italian Space Agency (ASI) Transparency Website

Current Italian Space Agency (ASI) Legal Documents

Documents for the strategic and technical management of the ASI including the Integrated Performance Plan, the Strategic Vision Document (DVS) and the Three-Year Activity Plan (PTA)

National Space Policy

Historical Documents

Pre-2018 Italian Space Agency Legal Document Archive

Japan 🇯🇵

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of Japanese Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

Overview of Japanese Space Law

Japanese version: 原典宇宙法-目次

Japanese Law Translation (JPN/ENG)

Sources of National Space Law

Basic Space Act (JPN/ENG) 

Space Activities Act (JPN/ENG)

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

Signatory to the Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Regulation of Space Activities

Law (Primary)

Administrative/Regulatory Law Regarding National Space Policy

National Space Policy

Agreements/Dialogues/Cooperation Forums

 Japan-U.S. Comprehensive Dialogue on Space; March 11, 2013 (ENG)

Archive of Japan-US Comprehensive Dialogue on Space (ENG)

Japan-U.S. Security Consultative Committee (2+2); April 2012 (ENG)

Archive of Japan-US Security Consultative Committee (ENG)

EU-led International Code of Conduct (ICoC) (draft; 03/2014) (ENG)

UNCOPUOS-led Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities (ENG)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Disaster Information Network (ADInet) (ENG)

Proposals/Drafts

The Space Strategy of MEXT (issued by the Working Group [working group on space development and utilization] in 2013) (JPN)

Comprehensive Strategy on Space Parts and Components’ Technical Development (produced by METI, the Cabinet, CAO, MIC, MEXT and the Ministry of Defense 03/31/2016) (JPN)

Objectives, Strategies, and Initiatives

JAXA’s mid-to-long-term objectives

Mid-term Objectives (2/28/2013)(JPN): 中期目標

Comparison of the latest to JAXA’s third-term Mid to Long-Term Objectives (JPN)

JAXA’s mid-to-long-term plan, annual plans

JAXA’s mid-to-long-term plan (JPN)

JAXA’s mid-to-long-term plan (draft)(ENG)

Mid-to-long-term Plan/Objectives Archive (JPN)

Strategies

National Defense Strategy (NDS) (ENG) (12/16/2022)

National Security Strategy (NSS) OF 2022 (ENG)

National Security Strategy (NSS) of 2013 (ENG)

National Security Strategy (JPN)

Medium-Term Defense Program FY2019-FY 2023 (2018 MTDP)(JPN)

National Defense Program Guidelines for FY 2019 and Beyond (ENG)

Defense Buildup Program (12/16/2022) (ENG) 

Space Industry Vision for 2030 (released May 29, 2017) (JPN)

Long-Term Visions on the Space Transportation System (released April 2014 by CNSP) (JPN)

Manual for Procedures regarding International Frequency Allocation for Small Satellite Constellations (JPN)

Guidelines on a License to Operate a Spacecraft Performing On-Orbit Servicing (OOS Guidelines) (ENG)

Task Force for Expanding Japan’s Space System Overseas (JPN)

About the Task Force (JPN)

List of working groups for the Task Force for Expanding Japan’s Space Systems Overseas (JPN)

The Space New Economy Creation Network (S-NET) (JPN)

S-Booster (ENG)

Space Awards (JPN)

Procedures, Guidelines, and Forms

Guidelines on Cybersecurity Measures for Commercial Space Systems v 1.0 (ENG)

Summary (ENG)

Administrative Procedure Act (ENG)

Act No. 88 of 1993; the Act provides for common rules regarding procedures for dispositions, administrative guidance, notifications, and the procedure for establishing administrative orders

Links to Forms (JPN)

Examples of forms:

Application to Launch Satellite Form (JPN)

人工衛星等の打上げに係る許可申請書

Form to Revise Application to Launch Satellite

Change notification regarding the launch of artificial satellites

Application to request approval for insurance for damages

Historical Documents

Two Outer Space-Related Laws Enacted | Library of Congress

Portugal 🇵🇹

Primary Source Materials

BBSL ToC Draft

CIA Factbook – Portugal Space

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

National legislation search

Source of National Space Law

Official source of Space legislation:
Presidência Do Conselho De Ministros Decreto-Lei n.º 16/2019 de 22 de Janeiro

Regulation of space activities and the creation of the Portuguese Space Agency:
Portugal Space

Regulation n.º 697/2019 on the System for Access to and Exercise of Space Activities

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Regulation of Space Activities

Regulation n.º 697/2019 on the System for Access to and Exercise of Space Activities 

Resolution of the Council of the Regional Government of the Azores n.º 30/2019 authorizing the participation of the Autonomous Region of the Azores in the Portuguese Space Agency

National Space Policy

Historical Documents

Russian Federation 🇷🇺

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

BBSL ToC Draft [SCF Members]

Russia – Space Factbook

Russian Federation – Space Security Portal

NOTE: Due to ongoing conflict, certain Russian Federation sites in the .ru top level domain may be blocked from the US, UK, EU, and other regions. You can typically access these sites by using a VPN service with geolocation options.

Databases of National Law

Search the official acts: 

Законодательство России 

Official Portal for legal publication of all acts in Russia

Официальное опубликование правовых актов Официальное опубликование

The Official Portal is divided between different branches and different government bodies. If you click on, e.g., the President of the Russian Federation, it will send you to all of the acts adopted by the President, etc.

General Law Reference Systems

КонсультантПлюс – Consultant Plus commercial legal reference system

ГАРАНТ – GARANT legal reference system (English version)

Электронный фонд правовых и нормативно- технических документов – Legal and normative/technical documents

Sources of National Space Law

Regulation of Space Activities

Licensing of space activities

Permits for construction and commissioning of space infrastructure facilities

Official site of the City of Baikonur 

Нормативные правовые акты

Roscosmos – State Corporation of Space Activities

The main source for Russian space law developments:

Roscosmos.ru

Official Acts (Roscosmos, Russian government, Projects and Administrative acts):  Документы

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Outer Space Treaty 1967

Rescue Agreement 1968

Liability Convention 1973

Registration Convention 1976

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Signatory to the The Civil International Space Station Agreement 

Ministry of International Affairs of the Russian Federation (English version)

Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации

Official publication of international and bilateral agreements of the Russian Federation.

Historical Documents

Declassified materials and archive of some space law Acts from the USSR:

Рассекреченные материалы

Spain 🇪🇸

Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

Big Book of Spanish National Space Law [SCF Members]

CIA Space Factbook

SWF Space Security Portal

Database of National Law

Source of National Space Law

Royal Decree No. 278/1995 Of 24 February 1995, translation filed with UNOOSA: 

National Space Law Collection: Spain

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Outer Space Treaty 1967 

Rescue and Return Agreement 1968

Liability Convention 1972

Registration Convention 1975

Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

ITU List of Agreements

Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA)

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Signatory to the Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station

Signatory to the Instrument of Ratification for EUTELSAT

Regulation of Space Activities

Creation of Agencia Espacial Española (AEE; Spanish Space Agency)Royal Decree 158/2023

National Registry of Objects launched into Space Royal Decree 278/1995

Royal Decree 925/2015, of October 16, which approves the Statute of the National Institute of Aerospace Technology

The Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) Law 14/2011, of June 1, on Science, Technology and Innovation.

The CDTI is the official Spanish representative in the Space Council

The Directorate for Telecommunications of the Spanish Commission for the Markets and Competition (Comisión Nacional de los Mercados y la Competencia or the CNMC)

The State Secretariat for Telecommunications and Digital Infrastructures (Secretaría de Estado de Telecomunicaciones e Infraestructuras Digitales), part of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Digital Transformation.

The Secretariat of State for Telecommunications and the Information Society (Secretaría de Estado de Telecomunicaciones y para la Sociedad de la Información) (SETSI), is considered a regulatory body under the authority of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. 

Resolution of June 29, 2023, of the Directorate of the Spanish Agency for Data Protection, which approves the models for submitting claims.

Royal Decree 136/1997 Of 31 January, Which Approves Is The Technical Regulation And Provision Of Telecommunications Service By Satellite

Satellite Communications Law

Act 36/2015 on National Security

Act 8/2011 establishing measures to protect critical infrastructure

Act 21/2003 on air security 

Act 48/1960 on air navigation

Codes

Spanish Commercial Code

Spanish Civil Code

Spanish Criminal Code

National Space Policy

National Aerospace Security Strategy 2019 

Strategic Project for Aerospace Recovery and Economic Transformation (PERTE)

Spanish Government’s plan for the decentralization of entities of the General State Administration. 

Law on protection of the astronomical quality of the observatories of the institute of astrophysics of the Canary Islands. 

*** The Spanish Space Agency is currently developing a cohesive National Space Policy. This section will be updated as the laws are published in the National Gazette. 

Historical Documents

History of Spain in Space

Ukraine 🇺🇦

Primary Source Materials

BBSL ToC Draft

Ukraine Space Factbook

Database of National Law

Source of National Space Law

Law On Space Activity: Document 502/96-ВР – official current version October 24, 2020

The Law on Space Activities (Ukrainian Text Only)

Regulations of the State Space Agency of Ukraine

The Law on State Support of Space Activities (Ukrainian Text Only)

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

National Space Policy

Command of the Cabinet of Ministers on Implementation of State Space Policy 

Policy on Space Activities for the Period To 2032 (Ukrainian Text Only)

Amendments to the Law on Space Activities (Ukrainian Text Only)

Decree Of The President On Space Industry Development (Ukrainian Text Only)

Regulation of Space Activities

The National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU)

Decree of the President on Provisions of NSAU (Ukrainian Text Only)

Decree of the President Establishing NSAU (Ukrainian Text Only)

Historical Documents

The Law Of Ukraine On National Space Program Of Ukraine 2008-2012 (Ukrainian Text Only)

The Law Of Ukraine On National Space Program Of Ukraine 2013-2017 (Ukrainian Text Only)

The Law Of Ukraine On National Space Program Of Ukraine 2013-2017 (Ukrainian Text Only)

The Law Of Ukraine On National Space Program Of Ukraine 2003-2007 (Ukrainian Text Only)

United Kingdom 🇬🇧

Primary Source Materials

BBSL ToC Draft

CIA Factbook – UK Space

Database of National Law

Search UK Legislation – The National Archives via legislation.gov.uk

Sources of National Space Law

Outer Space Act (1986)

Isle of Man Amendment 2019 No. 258

Bermuda Order 2006 No. 2959

Cayman Islands Order 1998 No. 2563

Fees (Amendment) Regulations 1998 No. 2032

Gibraltar Order 1996 No. 1916

International Agreements

Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

Signatory to the The Civil International Space Station Agreement 

Concluded MOU on Technological Safeguards Associated with United States Participation in Space Launches from the United Kingdom

Concluded MOU on space cooperation and risk allocation with ASI

Concluded MOU on Cooperation and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space with the UAE 

All other MOU concluded by the UK Space Agency can he found here

Regulation of Space Activities

Space Industry Act 2018

Commencement Regulations 2018 No. 1224 (C. 86)

Transitional and Savings Provisions (Amendments) 2021

Commencement 2021 No. 874 (C. 47)

Commencement 2021 No. 817 (C. 45)

Space Industry Regulations (2021)

Space Industry (Appeals) Regulations (2021)

National Space Agency

United Kingdom Space Agency Official Site

Transfer of Property etc. Order 2011 No.822

Historical Documents

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 1993

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Jersey) Order 1990

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Isle of Man) Order 1990

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Hong Kong) Order 1990

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Guernsey) Order 1990

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Commencement) Order 1989

The Outer Space Act 1986 (Fees) Regulations 1989

United States 🇺🇲

Primary Source Materials

BBSL ToC Draft

CIA Factbook – US Space

Databases of National Law

United States Code: 

The codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States: Official US Code (GovInfo.gov)

Unofficial, but reflects amendments: US Code (House.gov)

Code of Federal Regulations: 

The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States.

Official Annual Edition: Code of Federal Regulations (GovInfo) 

Unofficial but reflects the most current law: eCFR 

Sources of National Space Law

United States Code: 

Title 51: National & Commercial Space Programs

Title 47: Telecommunications  → Chapter 6: Communications Satellite System

Code of Federal Regulations: 

Title 14: Aeronautics and Space

Title 14 Ch. III: Commercial Space Transportation

Federal Register:

The official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents. 

Official: Federal Register | GovInfo

Unofficial user-friendly site: Federal Register 

National Space Policy

    Space Policy Directives

    Executive Orders:

    Other National Space Policies

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Signatory to the The Civil International Space Station Agreement 

    Regulation of Space Activities

    Export Controls

    International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)

    Export Administration Regulations

    Department of Energy Export Regulations

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission Export Regulations

    OFAC Sanctions

    Consolidated Screening Tool

    FAA Regulations

    Part 401: Definitions

    Part 413: License Application Procedures

    Part 414: Safety Element Approvals

    Part 420: License to Operate a Launch Site

    Part 433: License to Operate a Reentry Site

    Part 437: Experimental Permits

    Part 440: Financial Responsibility

    Part 450: Launch & Reentry License Requirements

    Part 460: Human Spaceflight Requirements

    NOAA Remote Sensing Regulations

    National and Commercial Space Programs Act (NCSPA) of 2010 (51 USC Subtitle VI)

    Licensing of Private Land Remote-Sensing Space Systems (15 CFR Part 960)

    Definitions

    Tiers

    Application Review and License Conditions

    Restriction on Satellite Imagery of Israel

    Guidance

    US Person / Operating

    Radar General Image Quality Equation (RGIQE)

    Mission Assurance

    Submitting Data from Tier 3 Remote Sensing Systems for Evaluation

    Scope of Affiliates and Subsidiaries

    Cybersecurity measures

    Ground Components

    Annual Compliance Certification (ACC)

    Inspections

    Policy

    U.S. National Space Policy, Fact Sheet 

    U.S. National Space Policy (December 2020) 

    U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing Policy (April 25, 2003) 

    Space Policy Directive 5 Cybersecurity Principles for Space Systems (Sept 4, 2020)

    FCC Regulations

    Part 25 Commercial Licenses

    Experimental Licenses

    Application Processing Fees

    Regulatory Fees

    ITU Regulations

    ITU Cost Recovery Fees

    Historical Documents

    Basic National Guides
    Bulgaria 🇧🇬

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of Bulgarian Space Law [SCF Members]

    CIA Space Factbook

    SWF Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

         National legislation search

    Source of National Space Law

       

    International Agreements

    Party to these outer space treaties [International Space Treaties Status]

    Outer Space Treaty 1967 

    Rescue and Return Agreement 1968

    Liability Convention 1972

    Registration Convention 1975

    Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

    ITU List of Agreements

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Signatory to the Agreement on the Establishment of the INTERSPUTNIK International System and Organization of Space Communications (INTR) 1971 

    Signatory to the Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (INTERCOSMOS – INTC) 1976  

    Signatory to the Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) 1976 

    Signatory to the Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT) 1982

    Signatory to the Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUM – EUMETSAT) 1983

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention and Constitution (ITU) 1992

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National space agency regulations

    The allocation of radio frequencies and Geostationary Earth orbit slots is regulated under the Telecommunications Law.

    National Space Policy

    In the end of 2020, in recognition of the importance of international cooperation in space related matters, Bulgaria launched a negotiation process to continue its cooperation with the European Space Agency.

    In 2022, the Council of Ministers approved with Decision No. 71 the draft Agreement for a European Cooperating State between the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria and ESA, signed on 15 February 2022 in Toulouse, France.

    On June 14, 2022 Bulgaria signed the Charter of the Plan for a European Cooperating State in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, which allows for greater financial participation, continuation of project implementation, conducting tender procedures, and increasing the commitments of the parties.

    Germany 🇩🇪

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of German Space Law [SCF Members]

    CIA  Space Factbook

    SWF Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

    ITU List of Agreements

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

    Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA) 

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Space Policy

    Overview of German Space Law and Policy

    Space Law – Federal Foreign Office

    Historical Documents

    (no national space law yet: WIP)

    Luxembourg 🇱🇺

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of Luxembourg Space Law [SCF Members]

    CIA Space Factbook

    SWF Space Security Portal

     

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    Directory of all applicable laws: 

    Legal framework – The Luxembourg Space Agency

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

    ITU List of Agreements

    Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA)

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Regulation of Space Activities

    Luxembourg: Law on Use of Resources in Space Adopted | Library of Congress 

    National Space Policy

    Historical Documents

    Mexico 🇲🇽

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of Mexican Space Law [SCF Members]

    Mexico – Space Factbook

    Mexico – Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Party to all five outer space treaties:

    Outer Space Treaty 1967

    Rescue Agreement 1968

    Liability Convention 1973

    Registration Convention 1976

    Moon Agreement 1979 – Ratified, not signed

    Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

    ITU List of Agreements

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Signatory to the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Space Policy

    Historical Documents

    Netherlands  🇳🇱

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    CIA Factbook – Netherlands Space

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    Rules Concerning Space Activities and the Establishment of a Registry of Space Objects (Space Activities Act) (English version communicated to UNOOSA)

    [Links Needed]

    “Order Concerning Licence Applications for the Performance of Space Activities and the Registration of Space Objects” Order of 7 February 2008

    “Space Objects Registry Decree” Decree of 13 November 2007

    “Space Activities Act” Bill of 24 January 2007

    International Agreements

    Signatory to all five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Space Policy

    Historical Documents

    New Zealand 🇳🇿

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    CIA Factbook – New Zealand Space

    Database of National Law

    Sources of National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Space Policy

    Historical Documents

    Nigeria 🇳🇬

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    CIA Factbook – Nigeria Space

    Sources of National Space Law

    National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) Act (2010)

    Official website of National Space Agency 

    Nigerian Communications Act 2003

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Regulation of Space Activities

    The Regulations on the Licensing and Supervision of Space Activities 2015 Draft

    The NASRDA Act; Beyond a Domestic Implementation of International Space Obligations

    National Space Policy

    National Space Policy, 2000

    Historical Documents

    Report of the Special Committee to Review Space Matters in Nigeria, October, 2000

    Norway 🇳🇴

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    Norway Space Factbook

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Space Policy

    Norwegian Space Authority (2023) to provide ongoing supervision of national space activities

    Historical Documents

    Poland 🇵🇱

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of Polish Space Law [SCF Members]

    CIA Space Factbook

    SWF Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

         National legislation search

    Source of National Space Law

         Law creating the national space agency

    International Agreements

    Party to four of the five outer space treaties [International Space Treaties Status]

    Outer Space Treaty 1967

    Rescue Agreement 1968

    Liability Convention 1973

    Registration Convention 1976

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Signatory to the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA) 

    Signatory to the Civil Lunar Gateway Agreement

    Signatory to the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters”

    Signatory to the International Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement

    Signatory to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Arms Export Controls

    • 1971 Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO)
    • 1971 Agreement on the Establishment of the INTERSPUTNIK International System and Organization of Space Communications (INTR), 
    • 1976 Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (INTERCOSMOS – INTC),  
    • 1976 Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO), 
    • 1982 Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTL -EUTELSAT), 
    • 1983  Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUM – EUMETSAT), 
    • 1992 International Telecommunication Convention and Constitution (ITU).

    Regulation of Space Activities

         National space agency regulations

    The Polish Space Agency (Polsa) supports the Ministry of Economic Development and Technology in preparations for a National Space Program. Additionally,  the Polish Space Agency will continue to build the National Satellite Information System – a system of diversified satellite data available on one platform. Polsa currently receives funds from the ESA contribution, and EU funds to implement pilot programs. In 2018, POLSA announced a planned space budget of approximately $420 million over the following 8 years.

    National Space Policy

    The Polish Space Strategy (2017-2030) was accepted by the government in January 2017

    The Ministry of Economy is responsible for relations with the ESA and for overall coordination of space policy.

    As of now, there is still no national space program, but POLSA is working hard to submit an inspiring and achievable plan.

    Historical Documents

    Saudi Arabia 🇸🇦

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    CIA Factbook – KSA Space

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Signatory to all five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Regulation of Space Activities

    The Saudi Space Commission, established by Royal order at the end of 2018:

    Saudi Space Commission

    National Space Policy

    Historical Documents

    Slovakia 🇸🇰

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of Slovakian Space Law [SCF Members]

    CIA Space Factbook

    SWF Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

         National legislation search

    Source of National Space Law

         Law creating the national space agency

         National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Party to these outer space treaties [International Space Treaties Status]

    Outer Space Treaty 1967

    Rescue Agreement 1968

    Liability Convention 1973

    Registration Convention 1976

    Signatory to the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (NTB) 1963

    Signatory to the Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) 1976

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (INTC – INTERCOSMOS) 1976

    Signatory to the Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTL -EUTELSAT) 1982 

    Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUM – EUMETSAT) 1983  

    Regulation of Space Activities

    The Slovak Republic follows the rules and procedures of the ITU Radio Regulations and has established the Intergovernmental Frequency Spectrum Harmonization Committee, at the Ministry of Transport and Construction, with the main task being the coordination of frequencies in Slovakia. Changes in the allocation of frequencies/frequency bands are incorporated into the National Frequency Allocation Plan, which is updated annually and approved by the Government. The radio frequency spectrum is administered by the Regulatory Authority for Electronic Communications and Postal Services for all services and users.

    National Space Policy

    The Slovak Republic supports the creation of non-legally binding UN instruments (e.g. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines and the international guidelines of the UN for the Long-term Sustainability of outer space activities), including in the area of increasing transparency and building trust (TCBM) between states in the use of outer space, increasing the security and sustainability of space activities.

    Historical Documents

         First national space law

    Slovenia 🇸🇮

    Primary Source Materials [SCF Members]

    Big Book of Slovenian Space Law [SCF Members]

    CIA Space Factbook (not yet available)

    SWF Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

            National legislation search

    Source of National Space Law

            Law creating the national space agency

            National Space Law – The National Space Activities Act has been adopted by the parliament on 16 March 2022.

    International Agreements

            Party to these outer space treaties [International Space Treaties Status[o]]

                    Outer Space Treaty 1967

                    Rescue and Return Agreement 1968

                    Liability Convention 1972

                    Registration Convention 1975

            Signatory to the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

                    ITU List of Agreements

            Signatory to the  Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

            Signatory to the Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT – ITSO) 1971

            Signatory to the International System and Organization of Space Communications (INTERSPUTNIK) 1971

            Signatory to the Convention on the Distribution of Programme Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite (BRS) 1974 – The former Yugoslavia had signed and ratified the Convention on 31 March 1975 and 29 December 1976, respectively.

            Signatory to the Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (INTERCOSMOS – INTC) 1976  

            Signatory to the Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) 1976

            Signatory to the Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT) 1982

            Signatory to the Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) 1983

            Signatory to the ESA Association Agreement. 2016.

    Regulation of Space Activities

            National space agency regulations

            National Space Agency – Slovenian Space Office

            National Regulatory Authority in Slovenia – Agency for Communication Networks and Services of the Republic of Slovenia (AKOS)

            Act on Electronic Communications -ZEKom-2 (Official Gazette of the RS, no. 130/22- and 18/23 – ZDU-1O)

            Postal Services Act (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, no. 51/09, 77/10, 40/14 – ZIN-B and 81/15);

            Media Act – ZMed (Official Gazette of the RS, No. 110/06 – official consolidated text, 36/08 – ZPOmK-1, 77/10 – ZSFCJA, 90/10 – odl. US, 87/11 – ZAvMS, 47/ 12 and 47/15 – ZZSDT, 22/16, 39/16, 45/19 – dec. US, 67/19 – dec. US and 82/21)

            Act on Audiovisual Media Services (ZAvMS) (Official Gazette of the RS, no. 87/11, 84/15 and 204/21);

            Law on Radiotelevision Slovenia (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, no. 96/05, 109/05 – ZDavP-1B, 105/06 – odl. US, 26/09 – ZIPRS0809-B and 9/14)

            Radio Frequency Spectrum Management Strategy for the period 2021-2023

    National Space Policy

            National Space Policy repository

    Historical Documents

            First national space law

    South Africa 🇿🇦

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    Database of National Law

    CIA Factbook – SA Space

    Source of National Space Law

    Space Affairs Act of 1993

    Space Affairs Amendment Act of 1995

    South Africa National Space Law (UNOOSA)

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Regulation of Space Activities

    The Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) is the official regulator of South African communications and broadcasting, including spectrum allocation and satellite regulation:

    Final regulations — Independent Communications Authority of South Africa

    South African National Space Agency Act 36 of 2008

    National Space Policy

    South African Council for Space Affairs

    Historical Documents

    Sweden 🇸🇪

    CIA FactbookSweden – The World Factbook 

    Database of National Law

    Source of Space Law 

    Act on Space Activities (1982:963); and 

    Decree on Space Activities (1982:1069)

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Spectrum Regulatory Authority: Swedish Post and Telecom Authority – PTS;

    The Swedish National Frequency Plan.

    Swedish National Space Agency.

    International Agreements

    Ratified four out of the five outer space treaties:

    Outer Space Treaty 1967 

    Rescue and Return Agreement 1968

    Liability Convention 1972

    Registration Convention 1975

    Ratified the International Telecommunication Convention (ITU) 1992

    ITU List of Agreements

    Ratified the Convention establishing the European Space Agency (ESA) 

    Ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Ratified Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT)

    Ratified Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization

    Ratified Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT)

    Ratified Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO)

    National Space Policy

    A strategy for Swedish space activities | Government.se 

    Switzerland 🇨🇭

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    CIA Factbook – Swiss Space

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Regulation of Space Activities

    National Space Policy

    Historical Documents

    Swiss Federal Council: Update of Swiss space policy and development of a national legal framework for space activities (admin.ch)

    United Arab Emirates 🇦🇪

    Primary Source Materials

    BBSL ToC Draft

    CIA Space Factbook

    SWF Space Security Portal

    Database of National Law

    Source of National Space Law

    Federal Law No. 12 of 2019 on the Regulation of the Space Sector

    Article 4 scope of regulated space activities

      • Launch, re-entry, removal, and disposal of space objects
      • Operation of space objects
      • Satellite communication activities
      • Providing logistical support services in outer space
      • Management of space data activities
      • Collection of space-originating objects that fall in the UAE

    International Agreements

    Signatory to four of the five outer space treaties:

    Signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996

    Signatory to the NASA Artemis Accords

    Regulation of Space Activities

    By law, no one may own a space object, participate in space activities, or use or own space related facilities without obtaining a permit from the UAE Space Agency

    Regulations for registering space objects

    Regulations for permits for space activities

    Space resources regulations

    Regulations for Liability and Insurance resulting from space activities

    National Space Policy

    UAE National Space Policy

    National Space Strategy

    Remote Sensing Data Policy Guidelines

    Space debris mitigation guidelines

    Historical Documents

    Official directory of UAE space policy and law: 

    Space science and technology – The Official Portal of the UAE Government

    The SCF Space Law Research Guide is for academic and educational purposes only. All text and citations of law and policy are subject to change. The Space Court Law Library should be used to explore and study the rules relating to space activities. It does not constitute legal advice.

    ©2023 The Space Court Foundation, All Rights Reserved.

    Work on the Space Court Law Library brings together scholars and students from around the world to collaborate on six major projects. Together these projects form a comprehensive web-based space law reference site. It will be home to the most complete repository of primary source legal documents related to all national and international space law, private and public.

    The SCLL Editorial Team

    Christopher M. Hearsey

    Chris Hearsey

    Law Library Director

    Jonathan Kaley-Isley

    Director, Legal Research
    Law Library Editor

    Yana Yakushina

    Deputy Director
    Legal Research and
    Special Projects

    Tamara Blagojovic

    Associate Director
    Legal Research and
    Special Projects